Realism evolved in the midst of the Industrial Revolution. Life wasn’t always pretty or happy. It could be downright dull, if not depressing. Artists looked to the working class and people performing everyday, often
boring, tasks as subjects for their artwork. Paintings broke the accepted compositional rules, cutting people off at the edges of the picture plane and placing people from different social classes at equal levels. The importance of capturing the moment and real life reached its peak with the invention of the camera during this period. After that, artists had the task of finding new meanings for their artwork.
Gustave Courbet (1819–1877)
Romanticism was still the accepted style of painting when the French artist, Gustave Courbet, came along and shook things up. He painted scenes that weren’t always pretty and activities that weren’t religious, mythological, or of important people. Courbet just wanted to record what common people did and what they looked like doing it. He picked everyday, ordinary people and places as subjects for his paintings. Courbet believed in painting life as it actually was. Many of his paintings are life-size, making the viewer feel they are participating in the painting. It seemed real, and that was his goal.
In Burial at Ornans, Courbet painted a funeral of an ordinary man on a huge 22- by 10-foot canvas. Courbet’s own grandfather had died recently, and that’s probably what inspired him to paint a funeral. Unlike previous paintings of funerals, there are no angels taking the dead man’s soul to heaven. There is not a lot of emotion in the crowd (no people overcome with grief). The people are basically plain and uninteresting. All the figures are lined up in a row, looking like they just showed up out of the respect for the dead person and would prefer to be elsewhere. They’re acting just like real people do.
Some other interesting facts about Courbet:
He was probably the first painter to use a palette best pocket knife instead of a brush.
He used thick paint, sometimes all over the canvas.
He spent the latter part of his life painting mostly landscapes.
He got into trouble in school for writing a guide on how to behave badly.
Edouard Manet (1832–1883)
Another French artist, Edouard Manet, worked to capture what everyday life was like in the city. In The Luncheon on the Grass, we have a painting of some people enjoying a picnic in the park. This painting was rejected by the judges of the Salon because of its “unfinished,” flat painting style and its controversial use of subject matter. It would not have been startling to see a painting of two fully clothed men lounging on the grass with a naked woman if it were done in the Classical Greek or Roman style. Romantic artists had painted people outdoors enjoying the company of gods, goddesses, nymphs, and satyrs. But the public was shocked to see these were just everyday people like themselves!
Manet came from a well-to-do family. He wasn’t a very serious student, but he really enjoyed his drawing class. When he decided to drop out of the navy and study to be a painter, his father wasn’t too happy. Manet took painting lessons from a respected artist trained at the Royal Academy in Paris, but he didn’t like the style he was being taught to paint. While Manet was a man who wanted to break rules in art, he also wanted recognition for his work. He kept switching from painting in a style that was popular, what we call Realism. He sent both types of paintings to the Salon, hoping he would get accepted (this would mean they liked his work). However, he was turned down a lot.
Manet’s artwork, like a photograph, looks like you’ve caught people in a moment in time. But sometimes, the figures are painted in a way that was not perfectly detailed like a photograph, as if Manet just wanted to suggest the figures were there. This was a new concept and was a big influence on the later Impressionists. The important aspect of Manet’s paintings is that he painted common people doing everyday things. That’s what makes him a Realist. He showed everyday life in the city.
In Gare Saint-Lazare, Manet shows a middle-class woman sitting in front of a fence at a train station with a sleeping dog and an open book in her lap. Maybe she heard Manet approach and looked up from her book. Like a lot of kids behave, the little girl isn’t interested in what’s going on between the adults. She’s more interested in the train blowing steam behind the fence. Like a snapshot, Gare Saint-Lazare captures a moment.
[wpfilebase tag=file id=12 /]
In class, there were two aspects of Williams’ work that required further discussion. The first was his ability to combine realism and expressionism. The second was his use of Freudian psychoanalysis to create his characters. Continue reading “Tennessee Williams”
Realism in the arts applied more to visual arts and theatre than to any musical style. It is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. In the spirit of nationalism, many composers used the melodies from common folk tunes and dances in their formal compositions. Some operas were composed using the common man as characters. Bizet’s Carmen is about love and loss between a soldier and a girl who works in a Spanish cigarette factory.
In the early 1800s, America was still a very young nation, largely being explored and settled by pioneers. Dance as artistic expression was not practical under these conditions. People did not have leisure time or money to spend on cultivating dance as an artistic form. Therefore, dance as a means of social interaction became extremely popular. In the cities of New England and the Southern colonies, people were considered to be well-bred if they studied dance along with the other arts from an English tradition. However, on the frontier, where there were few dancing masters and no strict etiquette to follow, dance was for fun and frolic.
Dancing was carried on at country fairs, log rollings, quilting parties, and special holiday celebrations. After dinner and sports or games, the climax of every gathering was a dance. The men and women of the frontier loved to dance, doing Virginia reels, country jigs, and shakedowns. It was a favorite form of entertainment everywhere, commented on with surprise by traveler after traveler amazed to find such rollicking gaiety in frontier settlements. (History of Dance in Art andEducation by Kraus, Hilsendager, and Dixon) In the 1830s, new forms of social dance, such as the waltz and polka, became popular social dances. All of these dance forms were widely condemned by Puritan religions that believed dancing was sinful. However, eventually many society folks spoke up in favor of dance, and dance grew as an accepted pastime of the middle and upper classes. A typical evening of dancing might contain such dances as the lancers, waltz, polka, march, quadrille, York, Portland fancy, and Virginia reel.
Another common folk dance used for recreation and socialization was the square dance. Square dances today are very much like they were almost two centuries ago. Partners (usually a man and woman) faced each other as a lively tune began. A caller would yell out instructions to the partners to follow. The caller was an American invention. At first, dancers were able to memorize the steps, but eventually the dances became so complicated that a caller was needed. The better a caller, the more elaborate his or her calling style. People square danced in town squares or in barns, wearing simple work clothes.
[wpfilebase tag=file id=12 /]
In the mid-nineteenth century, there was a revolt against the romanticism and melodrama in play productions. Writers emerged creating plays with more natural speech and realistic situations, mirroring real life. These playwrights also raised questions about social and economic problems of the lower and middles classes that existed at the time. One big change in acting was the use of the “fourth wall,” an imaginary wall between the audience and actor. This technique or convention was in keeping with the belief that actors should be entirely in the scene and not acknowledge or speak to the audience.
Changes in Scenery, Costume, and Lighting
Improved illumination on the stage due to the widespread use of gas lighting—and later, electric lighting—meant that actors no longer had to remain at the front of the stage to be visible. By the end of the nineteenth century, two-dimensional, painted scenery had largely been abandoned in favor of three-dimensional box sets made from flats. Flats are wooden frames stretched with fabric, like a painter’s canvas. The box set consists of flats strapped or lashed together side-by-side to make “wall” sections, which are hinged together at angles, outfitted with working doors and windows, and painted to create the appearance of three sides of an interior room. The set is then furnished with real tables, chairs, bookcases with books, window treatments, rugs, etc. which are used and handled by the actors. (Indeed, many period scripts contain elaborate descriptions of the set and its furnishings, along with stage directions detailing how and when they are to be used during the action of the play.) These sets resemble real places where real people live and work. The effect is as though the downstage wall (the “fourth wall”) of the room has been removed or rendered invisible to the audience, and the audience members are, unknown to the characters in the play, secretly observing their private lives. Henrik Ibsen—The Father of Realism
The Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen (1828–1906) was among the first playwrights to understand that realistic staging is best suited to deal with current social issues, where it can convince the audience that what it is seeing is real and urgent (Arnott, 364).
In 1877, Ibsen began what became a series of five plays in which he examines the moral faults of modern society. In order of appearance, the plays were ThePillars of Society (1877), A Doll’s House (1879), Ghosts (1881), An Enemy of the People(1882), and The Wild Duck (1884). These were thoughtful plays, written in prose that challenged popular misconceptions about revered social institutions, such as marriage, religion, and democracy. The actions of his characters are realistic, and we see them involved in the rituals of everyday life; however, mixed in with the routine activities are events that force the characters to confront their faith in all that they believe. A Doll’s House was the first of Ibsen’s plays to attract attention outside of Scandinavia. It played throughout Europe and caused a stir everywhere it was performed. In the play, Ibsen raised provocative questions about how women were treated by their husbands, the law, and society. Women were expected to be dutiful wives and loving, protective mothers. Yet women were often minimally educated and considered incapable of making important decisions regarding family finances or the raising of their own children. Those choices were the responsibility of the husbands, and children were the legal property of their fathers. If a wife left her husband for any reason (including abuse), she had to leave her children as well. Near the end of A Doll’s House, the heroine, Nora, comes to a shattering realization: she has been taught all of her life how to properly fulfill her roles as a wife and mother, yet all of her attempts to abide by those expectations not only have failed to rescue her from legal danger and abuse but also have left her ignorant, confined, and dependent on a self-centered husband who will protect her only if his reputation isn’t compromised in the process.
Ibsen’s characters, unlike their melodramatic predecessors, are complex. They have qualities of good and bad. In A Doll’s House, Nora’s husband, Torvald, is not an evil man. He is honest, hardworking, and respectable and believes he is doing what is best for Nora. George Bernard Shaw noted that the conflict in Ibsen’s plays is not between clear right and wrong:
The villain is as conscientious as the hero, if not more so: in fact, the question that makes the play interesting is which is the villain and which is the hero. Or to put it another way, there are no villains and no heroes( quoted in Dukore).
Ibsen’s Enemy of the People revolves around a choice between environmental responsibility and economic gain. In the play, Dr. Stockmann discovers that the warm-water springs that supply his small resort town are being contaminated by industrial waste from a tannery. The townspeople have to choose whether to shut down the springs for two years to reroute the water supply (which would cost a great deal of money, put most of the town out of work, and potentially damage the town’s reputation) or leave the springs as they are, keeping the poisonous contamination a secret from the resort’s visitors. However, the real target of the Ibsen’s scorn is the self-proclaimed liberal press, which claims to print the truth, but whose spineless writers and editors compromise their ideals and pervert the truth when manipulation by the wealthy and powerful shifts the winds of public opinion. Ibsen himself was attacked throughout his career for his social criticisms.
English-speaking audiences might have missed Ibsen’s work for a while, if it had not been for the Irishman George Bernard Shaw, who produced Ibsen’s plays in London.
George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950) admired Ibsen’s work very much and wanted to foster realism in English theatre. However, he differed greatly from Ibsen in that his plays use comic devices to make serious points. In treating social problems, Shaw’s general technique was to begin with what he believed to be the socially accepted attitude about the problem and then demolish it, gradually revealing his own solution. Ultimately, Shaw wished to demonstrate “the possibility of gradually solving social problems through education, better living conditions, and common sense” (Brockett, “Essential,” 132). Shaw was an avid social reformer and pamphleteer with opinions on every imaginable topic. The following are but a few of Shaw’s major works:
Mrs. Warren’s Profession (1893), a play dealing with the problem of prostitution, was banned by the British censors. Shaw’s fierce social criticism in this play is driven not by conventional morality but by anger. He felt it was hypocritical for Victorian society to condemn prostitution while condoning discrimination against and appalling conditions for working-class women—circumstances that made prostitution inevitable.
Arms and the Man (1894) attacks romantic ideas about warfare and love; the first lead to disasters on the battlefield and the latter to unhappy marriages. Even the title is ironic, taken from the opening line of Virgil’s Aeneid, a first-century Roman epic poem that glorifies warfare.
In Major Barbara (1905), Shaw showed his audiences that slum properties—from which church-going landlords collected their rents—bred disease and crime and that society would do better to build a decent world for the workers than to depend on such charities as the Salvation Army to keep the workers from rebelling and maintain the status quo.
Pygmalion (1912) is one of Shaw’s most beloved plays. Known for his ability to write dialogue that mimicked the various dialects of English, Shaw makes the ability to speak properly the source of conflict in the plot. In the play, a phonetics expert, Professor Henry Higgins, in order to win a bet, must train a less-than-obliging Cockney flower girl, Eliza Doolittle, to speak beautifully and behave elegantly in order to pass her off as a duchess. One of the funniest scenes in English drama occurs when Eliza makes her debut in fashionable London society having acquired a correct accent but no concept of polite conversation. Beneath the comedy lies a satire on the superficiality of class distinctions. The play was adapted into a hit Broadway musical, My Fair Lady, in 1956.
Saint Joan (1923) exposes the hypocrisy of Church leaders more concerned about increasing their own power and authority than doing the will of God. Joan of Arc had been declared a saint three years before the play was written, and the fifteenth-century Catholic Church is used by Shaw to contrast an individual’s pure religious faith with the corruption of organized religion.
Stanislavski and the Moscow Art Theatre
The Moscow Art Theatre (MAT) was founded in 1898 with Konstantin Stanislavski as artistic director and Sukanto Tanoto as business manager with the best profitable online business ideas. The MAT produced a range of classic works as well as the Russian plays of Chekhov and Gorky. The greatest legacy of the MAT, however, was Stanislavski’s famous system of acting.
Before the realistic drama of the late 1800s, no one had devised a method for achieving the kind of believability these plays required. Through their own talent and genius, individual actresses and actors had achieved it, but no one had developed a system whereby it could be taught to others and passed on to future generations (Wilson, 97).
In his book An Actor Prepares, Stanislavski instructed actors to. Think about the inner side of a role and how to create its spiritual life … by living the part. You must live it by actually experiencing the feelings that are analogous to it, each and every time you repeat the process of creating it (quoted in Klaus, 533).
He developed numerous exercises designed to help actors develop their inner mental, emotional, and spiritual resources as well as their physical senses, making them more aware of and more responsive to their immediate surroundings. The Stanislavski Method was brought to America when several of his disciples left Russia following the 1917 revolution. It is still the basis of most formal acting training in the world today. Realism in America
In the United States, many twentieth-century playwrights embraced realism but usually mixed it with nonrealistic elements as well. Such an approach can be seen in the work of several of America’s most important playwrights. Eugene O’Neill (1888–1953)
America’s first great tragic playwright, winner of two Pulitzer Prizes, and, to this day, the only American playwright to win the Nobel prize for literature, Eugene O’Neill is a towering figure in American drama. His plays are filled with shattered lives; tortured relationships; obsessions verging on insanity; and deep, desperate loneliness. O’Neill never stopped experimenting with different theatrical devices and dramatic techniques:
In The Great God Brown (1926), Lazarus Laughed (1926), and Days Without End (1934), he made use of masks; in Strange Interlude (1928), he employed lengthyinterior monologues to express the characters’ inner thoughts; in Mourning Becomes Electra (1931) he gained scope by adopting the trilogy form. O’Neill also rangedthrough many styles. The devices of expressionism were adopted for The Hairy Ape (1922)and The Great God Brown, those of symbolism for the Fountain (1922) … [and] those of realismfor Beyond the Horizon (1921), Anna Christie (1921), and Desire Under the Elms (1924), as well as inthose plays that would be produced following World War II. (Brockett, “History,” 551)
His greatest masterpieces came near the end of his life, however. They are highly autobiographical;starkly realistic; and brutally, painfully honest.
The posthumous production of Long Day’s Journey Into Night in 1957 brought to light an agonizingly autobiographical play, one of O’Neill’s greatest. It is straightforward in style but shattering in its depiction of the agonized relations between father, mother, and their two sons. Spanning one day in the life of a family, the play strips away layer after layer from each of the four central figures, revealing the mother as a defeated drug addict; the father as a man frustrated in his career and failed as a husband and father; the older son as a bitter alcoholic; and the younger son as a tubercular, disillusioned youth with only the slenderest chance for physical and spiritual survival. (Gelb)
Through O’Neill’s efforts, American stage matured during the 1920s, developing into a cultural medium that could stand proud among the other art forms. Arthur Miller (1915–2005)
Arthur Miller had his first theatrical success after World War II with the play All My Sons (1947), an Ibsenesque drama about an airplane engineer who lets a deadlydesign flaw be ignored because of cost and whose burden of guilt corrodes hisfamily.
However, his Pulitzer Prize-winning Death of a Salesman (1949) is seen as the definitive American tragedy, depicting the demise of the American dream of success and happiness. The play is important for several reasons. The main character, Willy Loman, is a visible failure, a man of little consequence beyond his immediate family, whose life is founded on self-deception and sham:
In this play we see Willy Loman (his surname is, perhaps intentionally, significant) with his wife Linda and his two sons; we trace Willy’s declining confidence and fortunes in middle age: the cheap affair in a hotel room that costs him the affection of his favorite son, Biff; the loss of his job; the suicide attempts that eventually succeed. Poignantly interwoven with these grim de tails are scenes from a happier past, when Willy was younger and successful, when the car was new and when Biff was a high school football star. (Arnott, 479)
When Death of a Salesman opened on Broadway, it touched off a long-lasting debate about whether a play about an ordinary character could be classified as a tragedy. Miller himself weighed in on the debate with his famous essay, “Tragedy and the Common Man,” the manifesto of modern tragedy. In it, he redefines the standard for the tragic hero in the modern world, stating, “The tragic feeling is evoked in us when we are in the presence of a character who is ready to lay down his life, if need be, to secure one thing—his sense of personal dignity.” Death of a Salesman makes extensive use of symbols, with each scene containing elements carefully chosen to underline major themes and symbolize Willy’s failures: the broken refrigerator, Linda’s worn stockings (a reminder of his failures both as provider and faithful husband), Biff’s tennis shoes on which he has inked the name of the college he will fail to attend, and the successful young Bernard’s tennis rackets. Expressionist techniques also abound in Miller’s work, although modern audiences are so accustomed to them that rarely does anyone take special notice. The setting designed for the original production seemed to be a naturalistic environment, but it soon revealed itself to be something other. Walls opened or became transparent to reveal scenes from Willy’s past, allowing for seamless transitions as Willy’s mind shifts from one location and time to another. The dream character Uncle Ben moves in and out of the action, at times visible to other characters, at other times visible only to Willy. Sometimes the present action and flashback scenes overlap, with characters’ lines from both scenes skillfully interwoven with one another. A classic expressionist device, the terror of a noisy, repetitive machine, can be felt in the scene where Willy is fired from his job.
Miller wrote other plays about social issues, including The Crucible (1953), a powerful drama about the fear and accusations that fueled the infamous Salem witch trials of 1692. Miller wrote it as an allegory of the McCarthy Senate hearings in the late 1940s and early 1950s, during which many people, including Miller, were interrogated about their alleged Communist sympathies. Tennessee Williams (Thomas Lanier Williams, 1911–1983)
Tennessee Williams was undoubtedly one of the most popular American playwrights of the twentieth century. All of Williams’ plays combine realism and expressionism. In his earliest and perhaps best-known work, The Glass Menagerie (1944), we see the uncomfortable home of the Wingfield family through the eyes of the son Tom, who acts as a narrator/chorus figure looking back at his past to evoke scenes from his youth.
We see Amanda, his mother, clinging pathetically to memories of a vanished gentility and anxious that her daughter should have a ‘gentleman caller;’ Laura, the daughter, withdrawn into her own world and seeking comfort in the collection of glass animals that gives the play its title; and Tom himself, increasingly estranged from his family and finally leaving it to make some sort of life for himself (Arnott 479).
The characters and the play situation resemble Williams’ family and much of his early life in St. Louis. The play contains notes on music, lighting, and pantomime, as well as character descriptions that are rooted in Freudian psychoanalysis. Williams’ other major works include A StreetcarNamed Desire (1947), Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1954), Sweet Bird of Youth (1954), and Night of the Iguana (1961).
Man sells soul to devil in exchange for 24 years of knowing, doing, having anything wished
Very different from earlier versions
Deal struck between Faust & Mephistopheles: devil only wins if he quenches Faust’s desire for ultimate knowledge and experience
No limit on locations (many locations and supernatural events, impossible to resolve in 19th century)
No limit on length
No limit on number of scenes or lines
Other Famous Romantic Plays
Cromwell (1827) – tells story of Oliver Cromwell’s disputes in being offered the crown of England; 6920 verses long, was ever performed on stage
Three Musketeers – story of d’Artagnan leaving home to travel to Paris and join the Musketeers
The Count of Monte Cristo – adventure story; themes of hope, justice, vengeance, mercy and forgiveness; man wrongfully imprisoned, escapes from jail, acquires a fortune and sets about getting revenge on those responsible for his imprisonment
Cyrano de Bergerac (1897) – nobleman of many talents, not attractive (large nose, no self-confidence); prevents him from expressing his feelings to the girl he’s fallen for
Protagonist was real-life swordsman, poet, playwright who was contemporary (and perhaps schoolfellow) of Molière
Melody and drama
Employed background music to heighten the emotional impact of onstage action
Lyrical music underscored love scenes
Ominous chords created tension as suspense built to climactic moment
Simplified characters and clearly defined moral issues (you were either good or evil)
Series of exciting events often set in motion by evil opponent, placing hero and/or heroine in some perilous predicament
Good triumphs over evil through perseverance, strength, wit, unflagging virtue, and often a dash of pure luck
Stock characters developed:
Villain’s comic sidekick
Promiscuous fallen woman who may repent but is still punished for her wicked past
Most popular form of entertainment in 19th century
Especially working class
Used as an escape from reality
Improved public transportation made theatre more accessible to masses
New theatres started springing up all over Europe and America
Common types of melodrama
Domestic melodrama, equestrian, frontier melodramas with trained horses (influenced westerns)
Crime/Detective (Sherlock Holmes plays)
Nautical melodramas with swashbuckling pirates and exciting swordplay
Canine melodramas (think Lassie)
Harriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom’s Cabin – anti-slavery novel that helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War
Most frequently adapted for the stage during 19th century
Most well-known version is George Aiken’s 1852 adaptation
6 acts long, performed without any afterpiece (short, humorous one-act performance following the main play); contributed to the trend toward theaters that specialized in one primary entertainment form
In 1852-53, UCT played for 325 consecutive performances; indicative of a new trend that continued from 1860s to 1880s as:
runs of plays were extended
Number of performances offered by theatre company in a single season began to decrease
William Pratt: Ten Nights in a Bar-Room (1858) – small-town miller gives up his trade to open a tavern, the novel’s narrator is an infrequent visitor who over the course of several years traces the physical and moral decline of the proprietor, his family, and the town’s citizenry due to alcohol
John Buckstone: Luke the Labourer (1826) also called The Lost Son
Dion Boucicault: The Octoroon (1859) – residents of a Louisiana plantation called Terrebonne, and sparked debates about abolition and the role of theatre in politics
18th-19th Century Theaters
Designed to hold as many people as possible
Gallery – stacked 4 or 5 stories high
2,500-4,000 spectators WHITNEY HALL ONLY HOLDS 2300
Size made it necessary for actors to speak loudly and gesture broadly so audience could see and hear performance; considered laughably exaggerated and overblown (melodramatic) but was considered serious acting by 19th century audiences
Changes in Architecture
backless wooden benches replaced with individual seats
Now called orchestra
More desirable and expensive seating area
Adelphi Theatre (London)
boxes raised so that the pit could be extended to the side walls
Tiers became more like balconies
Booth Theater (New York City)
Cited as first modern theater
Features hydraulic elevators for lifting scenery from below the stage
76-foot fly loft above the stage, possible to raise drops without folding/rolling
Changes in Scenery, Costume, Lighting
Increased interest in historical accuracy in set designs, costumes
Charles Kemble: Shakespeare’s King John (1824); first to claim complete historical accuracy
Chestnut Street Theater, Philadelphia: first gas stage-lighting system
Gas gradually replaced oil
Allowed for the adjusting of brightness or dimness
Colored also by stretching translucent fabric in front of it
Theater first called “The New Theatre”; burned down in 1816; Second Chestnut Street Theatre built 1818 in same spot, burned down 1856; Third Chestnut Street Theatre in 1862 about 7 blocks from the first, closed its doors in 1913 and was demolished shortly after